In order to fully prepare for your anatomy and physiology exams, you have to be equipped with a good quality revision plan in writing and you must also have a range of questions and quizzes that you can use throughout your studies. A good anatomy and physiology quiz guide will have these questions and puzzles and you must make sure that you always have one. There are many different sections under each body system and these areas should be studied individually. For example, if you are studying the skeletal system, learn long bones one day and learn short bones the next day. Make sure that you take the relevant points from each area and write them out in your own writing. Always keep your notes clear and concise so you are sure of exactly what you need to study.
I would always recommend using a folder for your notes, you can separate them using clear plastic envelopes, these keep everything organised. I would also advise that you take some questions and puzzles from you anatomy and physiology quiz guide and include them in your folder. As an example, I will condense an area of the skeletal system, joints, down into notes to give you an idea of what points to include.
A joint is formed when 2 or more bones come together, they hold the bones together and enable the skeleton to move. Joints are classified into 3 different types:
1. Fibrous – this is a fixed joint where no movement is possible. Between the bones you will find bands of tough fibrous tissue. These type of joints hold the teeth in the jawbone.
2. Cartilaginous – this is a slightly moveable joint where slight movement is possible. They are composed of pads of fibrocartilage between the bones which act as shock absorbers. Examples include, pads in between the vertebrae.
3. Synovial – this is a freely moveable joint. Filled with synovial fluid, these type of joints allow movement in many directions and are the main joints in the body.
a) Ball & Socket – this type of joint is the most freely moveable and allows movement in several directions including, adduction, abduction, flexion, extension, rotation and circumduction. Examples include shoulder and hip joint.
b) Hinge – this joint allows movement in one direction only, such as either flexion or extension. The knees and elbows are types of hinge joints.
c) Gliding – these type of joints allow bones to glide over each other and are often regarded as the least moveable of all joints. Examples can be found in the wrists, ankle and spine.
d) Saddle – movements possible include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and limited rotation. There is a saddle joint in the thumb.
e) Pivot – this allows a rotation movement. Examples include the first two cervical vertebrae.
f) Condyloid – this type of joint allows movement is 2 directions such as flexion, extension, adduction and abduction. There is no rotation. There are condyloid joints in the wrist.
This just gives you a fundamental understanding of the types of joints and their functions, but that is all you need when you are filling out your notes. Take any questions you have on this section from your anatomy and physiology quiz guide and include them in your notes. You can be fully confident in a successful outcome in your exams once you are organized in this way.
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